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Is the Tale of the Army of the Elephants being bombed/struck by the Sijjeel (سجيل) Stones by the Ababeel (أبابيل) Birds, a mere fable or a True Historical Event, in the Glorious Quran?

The sections of this article are:

1-  The Glorious Quran's Claims and the meanings of the Key Words.

       (a)-  The History of Noble Surah 105.
       (b)-  The Meanings of the Key Words in the Noble Surah.

               (i)-  What does Ababeel (أبابيل) mean?
               (ii)-  What does Sijjeel (
سجيل) mean?
               (iii)-  What does Asfin Maa'kul (
كعصف ماكول) mean?

2-  The Overwhelming Scientific Miracles of the Glorious Quran.
3-  Conclusion.

  

  

  

1-  The Glorious Quran's Claims and the meanings of the Key Words:

Let us look at Noble Surah (Chapter) 105:

Noble Verse(s) 105:1-105:5
Yusuf Ali:

[105:001]  Seest thou not how thy Lord dealt with the Companions of the Elephant?

[105:002]  Did He not make their treacherous plan go astray?

[105:003]  And He sent against them Flights of Birds,

[105:004]  Striking them with stones of baked clay.

[105:005]  Then did He make them like an empty field of stalks and straw, (of which the corn) has been eaten up.

Arabic (from right to left):

105:1 الم تر كيف فعل ربك باصحاب الفيل

105:2 الم يجعل كيدهم في تضليل

105:3 وارسل عليهم طيرا ابابيل

105:4 ترميهم بحجارة من سجيل

105:5 فجعلهم كعصف ماكول

  

  

(a)-  The History of Noble Surah 105:

The incident of Abraha Al-Ashram, king of Abyssinia, attacking Mecca to destroy the Kaaba, and to change its location over to his kingdom to draw the annual pilgrims of Arabia to come to his kingdom instead, is a locally (in Arabia) documented historical fact.  It is also well documented that his attack and mission were a failure.  By the way, king Abraha's attack on Mecca happened shortly before the birth of Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him.  The following articles clearly and indisputably prove this:

 

Several Articles and Images of Inscriptions showing the Elephants:

  

This article is in PDF format.  It has a well documented research that prove Islam's claims.  The article is also found in HTML format at Wikiversity.org.


This article was taken from: http://www.arabnews.com/saudi-arabia/news/641556#:

Saudis retrace route of Abraha’s army that came to destroy Kaaba

JEDDAH: P.K. ABDUL GHAFOUR | 

A group of young Saudi history enthusiasts has retraced the path of the People of the Elephant who tried to destroy the Holy Kaaba centuries ago.
The Holy Qur’an, in a short chapter, briefly refers to the story of the army of elephants led by Abraha Al-Ashram, who was a governor of Yemen. God destroyed Abraha and his army that included 13 elephants, by sending flocks of birds that dropped small stones on them. 
“There never fell a stone on a soldier except it dissolved his flesh and burst it into pieces … Abraha Al-Ashram fled while his flesh was bursting into pieces and died on the way back to Yemen,” said the 14th century scholar Ibn Kathir, an authentic Qur’an commentator.
During their tiring journey across mountains and rough terrain, the young Saudi men took photographs of important landmarks, beginning from north of Najran, to the east of Asir, and then east of Baha.
Some of the most important historical sites along the way included inscriptions of elephants on rocks in the Al-Qahr Mountain, southeast of Tathlith; an old well in Hafaer, east of Asir; and a paved road near Kara in Aqeeq principality in the Baha region. 
Mohammed Al-Amry, head of the geology department at King Saud University, said he had seen the path of Abraha and his army in Tathlith and Baha. “The army had passed the Arabian shield region comprising rocks and there were writings in the Humairiya language on some mountains,” he said.
According to historical Islamic sources, Abraha, who was a Christian, had thought of building a church similar to the Kaaba in Sanaa. He wanted the Arabs to perform the pilgrimage in Sanaa instead of Makkah, with the intention of diverting trade and benefits to Yemen. He presented the idea to the then king of Ethiopia who agreed to it. 
Abraha built the church but the Arabs refused to come for pilgrimage in Sanaa. This infuriated him, prompting him to form an army to invade Makkah and demolish the Kaaba. He defeated all Arab armies on the way until he reached Makkah where he was attacked by the flocks of birds sent by the Almighty.


This article was taken from: http://archive.worldhistoria.com/ethiopian-attack-on-makkah_topic15825.html

  

This event is very famous and had happend in the same year as the birth of the Prophet Muhammed, Peace Be Upon Him (PBUH) (the year 571). Although the Prophet PBUH was not born during this evetn.

The begining of this event actually goes back further to the year 523. A Jew named Dhu Nawas campaigend against the Christian of Najran, with the aim of converting them to Judaism. Due to their refusal Dhu Nawas had the Christians thrown in a ditch and then set them on fire.

This is the reason for the second conquest of Yemen by Ethiopia (Abyssinia). The Roman Christian's helped the Ethiopian Christian state to go against the Arabs. They assebled a fleet of 70,000 warriors to help the Ethiopian's. Under the leadership of Eriat they succeded in the year 525.
Eriat was given rulership of Yemen untill he was assasinated by a fellow army leader, Abrahah. With the permision of the Ethiopian King, Abrahah was granted as the leader of Yemen.

It was Abrahah who aimed at destroying the Kaba.

At the approuch of this grand army the inhabitants of Makkah fled to the hills. The Ethiopian army was approuching from the direction of Taif.

Upon the army was grand elephants. When they came close birds flew over Abrahah's army and dropped rocks frim their beaks. The elephants began to run away in panic and many of the soldiers died.

For more details:

Al-Yaman 'Abrat-Tarikh pp.77, 83, 124, 130, 157, 161

Tarikh Ardil-Qur'an 1/133

Tarikhul-Arab Qablal-Islam 105-151

The Sealed Nector pp48-49

The early life of Muhammad (PBUH) p6-7


This article was taken from: https://ponderingislam.com/2015/07/22/abraha-the-year-of-the-elephant-and-the-location-of-mecca-in-tom-hollands-in-the-shadow-of-the-sword/

  

Abraha, the year of the elephant, and the location of Mecca in Tom Holland’s “In the Shadow of the Sword”

So I’ve finished reading Holland’s book on the origins of Islam and I have to say I am not very impressed. I’ve revised my goals a bit and I will no longer be doing a point-by-point refutation of his book since much (as Holland himself admits) is speculatory, far too broad to refute directly and simply does not require much work to see why he is wrong in his main ideas. The origins of Islamic law and its development is also covered in the book (though rather amateurishly), but that will be discussed in a separate post as it is far too big and too important not to have a post on its own.

The location of Mecca

One of the main arguments in Holland’s book which I would like to refute is his ideas on the ‘original’ location of Mecca. Holland believes that the current Mecca, located near Yathrib, South arabia, is not the original place of its existence. It was actually in Palestine, and subsequently there was a great conspiracy by the Ummayyads to move the location and hide all the proof of its previous place of standing.

Most of his supporting points are not new and have been found in older (often times outdated) works such as those of the late Patricia Crone. There is currently a growing library of early Islamic inscriptions that help us place the early Muslim community within the vicinity of Mecca[1], unfortunately however they cannot be used to prove that Mecca was inhabited by the early Muslims as Holland does state that Muslims did somehow end up in Medina, thus the inscriptions would be the result of existence of a Medinan Muslim community and not necessarily a Meccan one. My positive argument for the original location of Mecca being correctly identified by the Islamic tradition will thus be a little less direct, consisting of two parts:

1. Pre-islamic inscriptions indirectly identifying the location of Mecca (this post)

2. The absurdities of Holland’s argument. (next post)

Part 1: Pre-islamic inscriptions indirectly identifying the location of Mecca

‘Am al-Fil: The year in which the Yemenite Christian king Abraha is said to have tried to attack Mecca to destroy the Ka’ba, in an attempt to divert pilgrimage from the Meccan shrine to his own great cathedral in Yemen[2]. The name, meaning “Year of the Elephant”, refers to Abraha’s usage of war elephants in his army which he led towards the Quraysh at Mecca.

The story is alluded to in the Qur’an in Surah al-Fil and its continuation, Surah Quraysh:

1 Do you not see how your Lord dealt with the army of the elephant? 2 Did He not utterly confound their plans? 3 He sent ranks of birds against them, 4 pelting them with pellets of hard-baked clay: 5 He made them [like] cropped stubble.

1 [He did this] to make the Quraysh feel secure, 2 secure in their winter and summer journeys. 3 So let them worship the Lord of this House: 4 who provides them with food to ward off hunger, safety to ward off fear.

The story alluded to here is undoubtedly the events in the Year of the Elephant. Commentators are absolutely unanimous in this regard[3]. One may still doubt whether these Qur’anic passages really do allude to ‘Abraha’s march towards Mecca. However, there is non-Qur’anic pre-islamic poetry that reports the same story that Muslim exegetes provide in their explanation of these verses. For example, in the kitaab al-hayawaan by al-Jahiz, a poem by Abu Qays Sayfi praises God for His help on “the day of the elephant of the Abyssinians”[3], recalling that the elephant simply stopped dead in his tracks and would not advance despite being tortured. Then “God sent a wind bringing a shower of pebbles (ḥāṣib) from above”[4]. Rubin notes that the vocabulary of the poem is distinctly unqur’anic[5]. Infact, the poem has different themes to that of the Qur’anic account: The Qur’an, as with recounting other pre-islamic occurrences, spins it into a cautionary tale and rhetorical prose to convince the audience of the magnificence of God.

To scholars, this indicates that Abu Qays’ poetry is independent from the Qur’an. It is very likely that the poem is pre-islamic.

It is important to note that the same poet also identifies this incident with “Abu Yaksum”[6] – none other than Abraha himself. This is significant- there is already enough similarity between the pre-islamic poem and Surah al-fil to realize that they are talking about the same event (due to an elephant being involved and an army being wiped out by stones from the sky). Thus, it obviously follows that both versions of the story (Qur’anic and pre-islamic) are speaking about an attack on the Quraysh by the Yemenite king Abraha.

What I would like to drive home at this point is that now we have Arabic poetry originating decades after the death of Abraha, authored by and for the Arabs which were contemporary with the incident, if not from the following generation. The Quranic account is independent from the poem, providing an added level of attestation to the historical account; again, written for Arabs that would have probably been children of those who lived even as Abraha led a campaign against Mecca. The story is both early and multiply attested. If we ignore the miracle story, there is little reason for a historian to deny that the expedition occurred*.

Other supporting evidence can be found in South Arabian inscriptions depicting war elephants[7]:

fig 2 and 3 abraha elephants

The inscriptions are significant because Abraha’s army would be the only one in the area to parade war elephants[8].

From this discussion, we can infer that:

1. The Qur’an is reporting a pre-Islamic event that must have actually happened some time during Abraha’s reign, meaning that the generation before the Prophet’s own[9].

2. Abraha campaigned with war elephants in the South Arabian region.

After establishing these two points, it is now possible to see how Holland’s assertions do not coincide with the historical facts presented here.

Mecca in Palestine?

Holland places the ‘original’ location of Mecca in Mamre, Palestine. Palestine in the 6th century was situated in Byzantine land. The corollary? That Abraha must have attacked the Byzantine empire some time in the 6th century.

One only needs to be slightly familiar with 6th century byzantine and arabian history to know how this is plain and simply false. We can understand why the expedition of the elephant is absent from pre-islamic jahili written tradition (plainly due to the fact that the writing was comparatively rare in the first place), however an attack on the Palestine would have been recorded at least by Roman sources. Procopius, a byzantine historian living in Palestine during the reign of Abraha records his ascent to power over the Himyarites, as well some of his wars and political exploits during his reign[11]. Abraha’s supposed attack on Palestine goes unmentioned, however, his promise to Justinian to attack the Persians does not.

I believe in this case we can make a good argument from silence. Had the attack happened, Procopius would have written about it, if not some other roman historian.

Besides Procopius’s account, Abraha campaigning against the Byzantines simply seems unlikely. The latter is was a regional superpower sharing the same religion as that of Abraha, so unlike Islam’s conquest of Roman lands, there is no theological motive to challenge a natural alliance. This explains why Abraha aligned himself with the Byzantines against the Persians at one point[12].

On the other hand, an attack on a south arabian Mecca simply seems much more plausible. Inscriptions indicating Abraha’s political and military might over this area are well known, some of which have been reproduced in this article. There is also the Murayghan inscription, reporting of an expedition sent by Abraha towards Taraban, 100km north of Ta’if[13], which is in the vicinity of the traditional location of Mecca.

Conclusion

Tom Holland’s proposal that Mecca was originally located at Mamre, Palestine cannot be correct because it contradicts known facts surrounding the expedition of the elephant. As there is good evidence for the expedition, it would entail that the Himyarite king marched against the Byzantines, which contradicts what we see in Roman historical records and also goes against common sense.

The next post in this series will insha’allah expose some of the dubious methods with which Holland draws his conclusions. I actually do believe that this next post will provide a stronger argument, as it draws from common objections (and not those of an amateur blogger, ie. me) against Crone’s (and therefore Holland’s) theories on early Islam. I did want to do something “different” though, and as far as I am aware the argument presented in this blog post is a novel one.

Bibliography

[1] A very useful web page collating these inscriptions is www.islamic-awareness.org/History/Islam/Inscriptions/

[2] For an overview of the traditional story, see “The Message of the Qur’an”. Muhammad Asad. See intro to Surah al Fil. Other reasons are proposed for the motives of the campaign, one of which is that some Arabs went and defiled the cathedral in Yemen which incited ‘Abraha’s anger. 

[3] See entry for Abraha. Rubin, Uri. Encyclopaedia of Islam, 3rd ed. 

[4] ibid.

[5] ibid. “These and other verses that al-Jāḥiẓ considers genuinely pre-Islamic (al-Jāḥiẓ, Kitāb al-Ḥayawān, 7:197–9) are indeed free of Qurʾānic vocabulary and style—even the description of the divine punishment lacks Qurʾānic phrases”

[6] ibid. It must be noted that the name is not Qur’anic, meaning that the poet must have had non-Qur’anic sources. This adds to the likelyhood of the poem being of Jahili origin.

* Scholars such as Rubin, Conrad and Robin have all argued for or have assumed the historicity of the campaign.

[7] Les Compagnons de l’Éléphant (Aṣḥāb al-Fīl ). Christian Robin. Published in Les origines du Coran, le Coran des origines. 2015. p47. I have roughly translated from french and edited in the captions.

[8] ibid.

[9] That of Abd Al-Muttalib- indeed, he is present in the traditional story of the expedition.

[10] See Brill’s Encyclopedia of Islam. Abraha marched against Persia

[11] Procopius, Histories of the Wars, Vol 1 and 2 accessable here: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/16764/16764-h/16764-h.htm

[12] ibid

[13] F.E Peters. Muhammad and the Origins of Islam. p88

 

Hi

This is why I was stressing the pre-islamic poem that I mentioned. It has common elements with the surah, which leads us to believe that they are speaking about the same event. Now, the pre-islamic poem also specifies who it was that was involved in the attack- “Abu Yaksum”. The scholars that I am quoting from all believe that this event has a historical core to it.

It’s actually not at all that unthinkable. It’s very much possible.

https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Wikiversity_Journal_of_Medicine/The_Year_of_the_Elephant
The elephant that Abraha rode was probably the North African elephant (Loxodonta africana pharaoensis)—now extinct, which had been used by the Carthaginians centuries before. Its original range extended across North Africa and down the grasslands of the Sudan. Some have questioned the claim that elephants could not survive a long cross-desert sojourn because of their need for water. However, according to the parable, Abraha may have brought only a single elephant with him. His water bearers, oases, and wells along the northern march would have provided sufficient water for both the large army and its animal retinue, including at least one, but many elephants, and hundreds of horses, camels, and beasts of burden.


This article was taken from: http://www.emirates247.com/news/region/saudi-refuses-4-million-for-sacred-stone-2012-11-11-1.482567:

  

Note:  I have an issue with the title of this article.  Islam has no sacred stones.  It is actually the Bible that has Holy Stones that get anointed with oil.

Saudi refuses $4 million for sacred stone
By Staff
Published Sunday, November 11, 2012

A Saudi man on a hunting trip in the rugged mountains near the border with Yemen stumbled across a little dark stone, which he instantly recognized as that mentioned in the holy Koran. A year later, he was offered $four million for the stone but he refused.

Saleh Musfer Al Gamdi said the stone, which carries drawings of birds and elephants, weighs 131 gm, exactly the same number of words in the Koran verse that mentioned the stone-- “Surat Al Fil (elephant).”

According to that verse, God the Almighty sent Ababil birds to throw Sejil stones (pebbles of hell) to destroy an army led by Yemen’s warlord Abraha just before the advent of Islam to knock down Kaaba in Makkah, now the Moslems’ holiest shrine.

Gamdi said he found the hard black-grayish stone in the southern Jarb valley, previously known as the Green Wadi, where Abraha and his soldiers and elephants stayed for a period of time before heading for Makkah.

He said experts estimated that the stone dates back to nearly 1,442 years, adding that he found it just a day after dreaming of his father and grandfather.

“A year after I found the stone, I asked an Egyptian friend whose relatives work in the archeology field…they contacted me and asked me to send them pictures of that stone,” Gamdi said, quoted by the Saudi Arabic language daily Sabq.

“After a series of messages and phone calls, they told me they would buy the stone for $four million but I refused to sell it….a while later, the tourism department in Baha (southern Saudi Arabia) asked me to hand the stone over but I again refused.”

The story of Abraha begins when he feels envy of the town of Makkah in Saudi Arabia because Kaaba (House) was visited by many Arabs who wanted to make the pilgrimage every year before Islam. He has a great desire to destroy and divert Arab worshippers to Yemen, which has a large temple built by Abraha.

Before the offensive on Mecca, he first sent a messenger to inform them of his aims and desires. The messenger was suggested for the people of Mecca to perform their pilgrimage in Yemen only. If not, then the Kaaba will be destroyed.

Because they were disobedient, finally Abraha was really mad and ordered all troops to be getting ready to attack Mecca and destroy the Kaaba.

Abraha's army had complete war equipment, armour, and the elephants that will be used to knock down kaaba. Abraha told the messenger that the purpose of attack is not intended to fight, but just wanted to destroy the Kaaba.

At that time Mecca residents, led by Abdul Muttalib could not do anything to stop Abraha. There was no choice but to surrender and give up.

Some time before the arrival of Abraha’s army, Abdul Muttalib instructed his people to shelter and evacuate immediately behind the hill near Mecca.

Abraha was convinced that he will be able to destroy the Kaaba very easily. But what happens next? God's help arrived according to the Koran. These birds threw many, many stones of baked clay at the elephants and the people, which led to their defeat and destruction before they manage to knock down Kaaba.

  

Also Visit:

Some very STUNNING Divine Miracles: [1]

Here are some of my favorite Stunning Scientific Miracles in the Glorious Quran from among the tens (10s) that are listed in this section:

1-  Here is one stunning Numerical Miracle, from the 10s below, for you:

The Glorious Quran has 114 Chapters. The sum of those Chapters is 6555 (1+2+...+114 = 6555). There are also 6236 Noble Verses in the Glorious Quran. Now, IF YOU ADD EACH CHAPTER # with the number of its Verses, then you get a list of numbers. So 1 (first Chapter) + 7 (# of its Verses) = 8. Do this for all Chapters.

1-  The sum of the odd numbers from the list = 6555.
2-  The sum of the even numbers from the list = 6236.

See the XLS file for 100% confirmation.
  

2-  The Great Miracle.  Allah Almighty in the Holy Quran called the Number 19 Miracle "One of the Mighty Ones (Miracles)" (74:30-37) [1] [2].  See the 100s of Noble Verses that clearly testify to this Great Miracle.  Also, did you know that Allah Almighty Said in Surat Nuh (that's Noble Chapter Nuh (Noah)) that Prophet Noah lived for 950 years among his people. 

Yet, all Praise and Glory are due to Allah Almighty Alone, the entire Noble Surah is exactly written in 950 Letters [1] [2]!  You can thoroughly see this in the scanned images that thoroughly verify every single Noble Letter, in the links.  Click on the links to see the many other Numerical Miracles in the Holy Quran.  Also, see the Numerical Miracles section along with all of the other great sections.

  
3-  19 X 115 = 2185 Number 19 and BASMALA Miracle.  The total numerical value of Noble Verses 74:30-37 themselves, which are the heart of the Number 19 Miracle, has a stunning Miracle in it.  The value of these Noble Verses matches the multiplication of the BASMALA's number of letters (19 Letters) and their total numerical values (115): 19 X 115 = 2185.  The Basmala, which full text in Arabic means "In the Name of Allah The Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful" is the Key to the Glorious Quran.  It is recited first before reading the Holy Quran, and it is also obligatory upon every Muslim to start with the Basmala before starting any task.

  
4-  Please also checkout the many hundreds (100s) of Great Numerical Miracles, and the many tens (10s) of other Great Scientific Miracles that deal with:

     1-  Embryology.
     2-  Biology.
     3-  Astronomy.
     4-  Geology.
     5-  Mathematics
     6-  Archeology.
     7-  Prophecies [1].

For example:

1-  The explosion of the Universe, Galaxies and Stars bring about Smoke.
  
"When the sky disintegrates, and turns rose colored like paint (
وردة كالدهان)." (The Noble Quran, 55:37) [2] [3]
  

  
  

Also, the Glorious Quran [1] declares that the earth is:

1- Spherical.
2- Suspended in Space.
3- Rotating around itself.
4- Is traveling in Space.

This is also all demonstrated in good details in the following video file:

www.answering-christianity.com/egg-shaped_earth.htm   

  

More Islamic articles on this topic:

1-  http://www.islamic-awareness.org/Quran/Sources/BBdefense.html

2-  http://www.islamic-awareness.org/Quran/Sources/Allah/rhmnn.html

3-  http://www.usc.edu/schools/college/crcc/engagement/resources/texts/muslim/maududi/mau105.html#S105

4-  http://www.theholybook.org/content/view/9138/2/

  • http://www.theholybook.org/content/view/9139/2/
  • http://www.theholybook.org/content/view/9140/2/
  • 5-  Also, according to Abdullah Yusuf Ali's English translation Noble Surah 105:

  • "This early Makkan Surah refers to an event that happened in the year of the birth of our Holy Prophet, say about 570 A.C.  Yemen was then under the rule of the Abyssinians (Christians), who had driven out the Jewish Himyarite rulers.  Abrahah Ashram was the Abyssinian governor or viceroy.  Intoxicated with power and fired by religious fanaticism, he led a big expedition against Makkah, intending to destroy the Ka'bah.  He had an elephant or elephants in his train.  But his sacrilegious intentions were defeated by a miracle.  No defence was offered by the custodians of the Ka'bah as the army was too strong for them.  But a shower of stones by flocks of birds, destroyed the invading army almost to a man.  The stones produced sores and pustules on the skin, which spread like a pestilence."  (The Meaning of the Holy Quran, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, Page 1699, ISBN: 0-91597-59-0)
  •   

    So the following points are important to keep in mind:

    1-  The incident that Noble Surah 105 is talking about was not an ancient one.  The Surah was revealed in Mecca and was revealed to the Meccans.  It was virtually impossible for the Prophet of Islam to come up with some ridiculous tale to the people who have already witnessed the incident 40 years earlier.  He would've been immediately dismissed as a liar.

    2-  Ample historical documentations, that even by Western historians today approve of, state that Abraha's attack and mission was a big failure and was abruptly stopped.

    3-  There are eye witnesses to the birds attacking the army of Abraha and dumping stones on them.

    4-  The Kaaba was protected and as Allah Almighty Promised in the Glorious Quran, many will come to pilgrimage to it from all over the world every year.

      

      

    (b)-  The Meanings of the Key Words in the Noble Surah:

    The following are the Arabic key words in the Noble Verses, and their analysis:

  • ابابيل
  • سجيل
  • كعصف ماكول
  • الم تر
  •   

    1-  ابابيل (ababeel) means flight of birds, or a large amount of birds.  According to Lisan Al-Arab Dictionary [2], ابابيل (ababeel) means:

    (Arabic, from right to left)

    وأَبَل يأْبِلُ أَبْلاً: غَلَب وامتنع؛ عن كراع، والمعروف أَبَّل. ابن الأَعرابي: الإِبَّوْلُ طائر ينفرد من الرَّفّ وهو السطر من الطير. ابن سيده: والإِبِّيلُ والإِبَّوْل والإِبَّالة القطعة من الطير والخيل والإِبل؛ قال: أَبابيل هَطْلَى من مُراحٍ ومُهْمَل وقيل: الأَبابيلُ جماعةٌ في تَفْرِقة، واحدها إِبِّيلٌ وإِبَّوْل، وذهب أَبو عبيدة إِلى أَن الأَبابيل جمع لا واحد له بمنزلة عَبابِيدَ وشَماطِيطَ وشَعالِيلَ. قال الجوهري: وقال بعضهم إِبِّيل، قال: ولم أَجد العرب تعرف له واحداً.
    وفي التنزيل العزيز: وأَرسل عليهم طيراً أَبابيل، وقيل إِبَّالة وأَبَابيل وإِبالة كأَنها جماعة، وقيل: إِبَّوْل وأَبابيل مثل عِجَّوْل وعَجاجيل، قال: ولم يقل أَحد منهم إِبِّيل على فِعِّيل لواحد أَبابيل، وزَعم الرُّؤَاسي أَن واحدها إِبَّالة. التهذيب أَيضاً: ولو قيل واحد الأَبابيل إيبالة كان صواباً كما قالوا دينار ودنانير، وقال الزجاج في قوله طير أَبابيل: جماعات من ههنا وجماعات من ههنا، وقيل: طير أَبابيل يتبع بعضها بعضاً إِبِّيلاً إِبِّيلاً أَي قَطيعاً خَلْفَ قطيع؛ قال الأَخفش: يقال جاءت إِبلك أَبابيل أَي فِرَقاً، وطير أَبابيل، قال: وهذا يجيء في معنى التكثير وهو من الجمع الذي لا واحد له؛ وفي نوادر الأَعراب: جاء فلان في أُبُلَّتِه وإِبالته أَي في قبيلته.
    وأَبَّل الرجلَ: كأَبَّنه؛ عن ابن جني؛ اللحياني: أَبَّنْت الميت تأْبيناً وأَبَّلْته تأْبيلاً إذا أَثنيت عليه بعد وفاته
    .

    Translation:

    (a)-  الأَبابيلُ جماعةٌ في تَفْرِقة  The Ababeel is a dispersed group.

    (b)-  طير أَبابيل يتبع بعضها بعضاً إِبِّيلاً إِبِّيلاً أَي قَطيعاً خَلْفَ قطيع  The birds of Ababeel are ones that follow each others, in large groups, in groups after groups, and they are right behind each others.

    (c)-  وطير أَبابيل، قال: وهذا يجيء في معنى التكثير   And the birds of Ababeel is meant to show their large numbers.

      

    2-  سجيل (sijjeel) means (desert) rocks that are hard, sharp and/or made out of clay.  According to Lisan Al-Arab Dictionary [2], سجيل (sijjeel) means:

    (Arabic, from right to left)

    والسَّجِيلُ الصُّلْب الشديد.
    والسِّجِّيل
    حجارة كالمَدَر.
    وفي التنزيل العزيز: ترْمِيهم بحِجارة من سِجِّيل؛ وقيل: هو حجر من طين، مُعَرَّب دَخِيل، وهو سَنْكِ رَكِل (* قوله «وهو سنك وكل» قال القسطلاني: سنك، بفتح السين المهملة وبعد النون الساكنة كاف مكسورة.
    وكل، بكسر الكاف وبعدها لام) أَي حجارة وطين؛ قال أَبو إِسحق: للناس في السِّجِّيل أَقوال، وفي التفسير أَنها من جِلٍّ وطين، وقيل من جِلٍّ وحجارة، وقال أَهل اللغة: هذا فارسيٌّ والعرب لا تعرف هذا؛ قال الأَزهري: والذي عندنا، والله أَعلم، أَنه إِذا كان التفسير صحيحاً فهو فارسي أُعْرِب لأَن الله تعالى قد ذكر هذه الحجارة في قصة قوم لوط فقال: لنُرْسِل عليهم حجارةً من طين؛ فقد بَيَّن للعرب ما عَنى بسِجِّيل.
    ومن كلام الفُرْس ما لا يُحْصى مما قد أَعْرَبَتْه العربُ نحو جاموس ودِيباج، فلا أُنْكِر أَن يكون هذا مما أُعْرِب؛ قال أَبو عبيدة: من سِجِّيل، تأْويله كثيرة شديدة؛ وقال: إِن مثل ذلك قول ابن مقبل: ورَجْلةٍ يَضْرِبون البَيْضَ عن عُرُضٍ، ضَرْباً تَوَاصَتْ به الأَبْطالُ سِجِّينا قال: وسِجِّينٌ وسِجِّيلٌ بمعنى واحد، وقال بعضهم: سِجِّيل من أَسْجَلْته أَي أَرسلته فكأَنها مُرْسَلة عليهم؛ قال أَبو إِسحق: وقال بعضهم سِجِّيل من أَسْجَلْت إِذا أَعطيت، وجعله من السِّجْل؛ وأَنشد بيت اللَّهَبي:مَنْ يُساجِلْني يُساجِلْ ماجدا وقيل مِنْ سِجِّيلٍ: كقولك مِن سِجِلٍّ أَي ما كُتِب لهم، قال: وهذا القول إِذا فُسِّر فهو أَبْيَنُها لأَن من كتاب الله تعالى دليلاً عليه، قال الله تعالى: كَلاَّ إِن كتاب الفُجَّار لَفِي سِجِّينٍ وما أَدراك ما سِجِّينٌ كتابٌ مَرْقومٌ؛ وسِجِّيل في معنى سِجِّين، المعنى أَنها حجارة مما كَتَب اللهُ تعالى أَنه يُعَذِّبهم بها؛ قال: وهذا أَحسن ما مَرَّ فيها عندي.

    Translation:

    (a)-  السَّجِيلُ الصُّلْب الشديد  The Sijjeel is the hard and the tough.

    (b)-  سِجِّيل؛ وقيل: هو حجر من طين   Sijjeel is a rock from dried mud.

    (c)-  من سِجِّيل، تأْويله كثيرة شديدة   From Sijjeel means it is in great quantities and it is tough.

     

    3-  كعصف ماكول  means like an empty field of stalks and straw, (of which the corn) has been eaten up.  According to Lisan Al-Arab Dictionary [2],كعصف ماكول  means:

    (Arabic, from right to left)

    وقوله تعالى كعَصْف مأَْكول، له معنيان: أَحدهما أَنه جعل أَصحاب الفيل كورق أُخذ ما فيه من الحبّ وبقي هو لا حب فيه، والآخر أَنه أَراد أَنه جعلهم كعصف قد أَكله البهائم.
    وروي عن سعيد بن جبير أَنه قال في قوله تعالى كعصف مأَكول، قال: هو الهَبُّور وهو الشعير النابت، بالنبطية.
    وقال أَبو العباس في قوله كعصف قال: يقال فلان يَعْتَصِفُ إذا طلب الرزق، وروي عن الحسن أَنه الزرع الذي أُكل حبه وبقي تِبْنه؛ وأَنشد أَبو العباس محمد بن يزيد: فصُيِّروا مِثْلَ كعَصْفٍ مأَْكولْ أَراد مثل عصف مأْكول، فزاد الكاف لتأْكيد الشبه كما أَكده بزيادة الكاف في قوله تعالى: ليس كمثله شيء، إلا أنه في الآية أَدخل الحرف على الاسم وهو سائغ، وفي البيت أَدخل الاسم وهو مثل على الحرف وهو الكاف، فإن قال قائل بماذا جُرَّ عَصْف أَبالكاف التي تُجاوِرُه أَم بإضافة مثل إليه على أَنه فصل بين المضاف والمضاف إليه؟ فالجواب أَن العصف في البيت لا يجوز أَن يكون مجروراً بغير الكاف وإن كانت زائدة، يدُلّك على ذلك أَن الكاف في كل موضع تقع فيه زائدة لا تكون إلا جارَّة كما أَنَّ من وجميع حروف الجرّ في أَي موضع وقَعْن زوائد فلا بد من أَن يجررن ما بعدهن، كقولك ما جاءني من أَحد ولست بقائم، فكذلك الكاف في كعصف مأْكول هي الجارَّة للعصف وإن كانت زائدة على ما تقدَّم، فإن قال قائل: فمن أَيْنَ جاز للاسم أَن يدخل على الحرف في قوله مثل كعصف مأْكول؟ فالجواب أَنه إنما جاز ذلك لما بين الكاف ومثل من المُضارَعة في المعنى، فكما جاز لهم أَن يُدخلوا الكاف على الكاف في قوله: وصالِياتٍ كَكما يُؤَثْفَينْ لمشابهته لمثل حتى كأَنه قال كمثل ما يؤثفين كذلك أَدخلوا أَيضاً مثلاً على الكاف في قوله مثل كعصف، وجعلوا ذلك تنبيهاً على قوَّة الشبه بين الكاف ومثل.
    .......

    و{كعَصْفٍ مأكولٍ}، أَي: كزَرْعٍ أُكِلَ حَبُّهُ وبَقِيَ تِبْنُهُ

    Translation:

    (a)-  كعَصْف مأَْكول، له معنيان: أَحدهما أَنه جعل أَصحاب الفيل كورق أُخذ ما فيه من الحبّ وبقي هو لا حب فيه، والآخر أَنه أَراد أَنه جعلهم كعصف قد أَكله البهائم   Like the Ka'aasfin Maa'kool has two meanings:

  • The first one is that the companions of the elephant were like the plants which its seeds where taken from it, and they were left without seeds.
      

  • The other meaning is that many of them were left dead for the wild animals to eat them.

  • (b)-  و{كعَصْفٍ مأكولٍ}، أَي: كزَرْعٍ أُكِلَ حَبُّهُ وبَقِيَ تِبْنُهُ   Like the Ka'aasfin Maa'kool means it is like the plant which seeds were eaten.

      

    4-  الم تر (have you not seen).  Throughout the Glorious Quran, Allah Almighty had said this statement on a number of occasions to Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, when He, the Almighty, Gave him a vision of a historical event that happened in the past, or of something that is occurring in the world of the unseen, or a vision of something current that was not known to the Believers.  The following Noble Verses clearly prove this:

    Noble Verse(s) 22:18
    Yusuf Ali:

    [022:018]  Seest thou not that to God bow down in worship all things that are in the heavens and on earth,- the sun, the moon, the stars; the hills, the trees, the animals; and a great number among mankind? But a great number are (also) such as are fit for Punishment: and such as God shall disgrace,- None can raise to honour: for God carries out all that He wills.

    Arabic (from right to left):

    22:18 الم تر ان الله يسجد له من في السماوات ومن في الارض والشمس والقمر والنجوم والجبال والشجر والدواب وكثير من الناس وكثير حق عليه العذاب ومن يهن الله فماله من مكرم ان الله يفعل مايشاء

      

    Noble Verse(s) 24:41
    Yusuf Ali:

    [024:041]  Seest thou not that it is God Whose praises all beings in the heavens and on earth do celebrate, and the birds (of the air) with wings outspread? Each one knows its own (mode of) prayer and praise. And God knows well all that they do.

    Arabic (from right to left):

    24:41 الم تر ان الله يسبح له من في السماوات والارض والطير صافات كل قد علم صلاته وتسبيحه والله عليم بما يفعلون

      

    Noble Verse(s) 59:11
    Yusuf Ali:

    [059:011]  Hast thou not observed the Hypocrites say to their misbelieving brethren among the People of the Book? - "If ye are expelled, we too will go out with you, and we will never hearken to any one in your affair; and if ye are attacked (in fight) we will help you". But God is witness that they are indeed liars.

    Arabic (from right to left):

    59:11 الم تر الى الذين نافقوا يقولون لاخوانهم الذين كفروا من اهل الكتاب لئن اخرجتم لنخرجن معكم ولانطيع فيكم احدا ابدا وان قوتلتم لننصرنكم والله يشهد انهم لكاذبون

      

    Noble Verse(s) 89:6
    Yusuf Ali:

    [089:006]  Seest thou not how thy Lord dealt with the 'Ad (people),-

    Arabic (from right to left):

    89:6 الم تر كيف فعل ربك بعاد

      

      

    2-  The Overwhelming Scientific Miracles of the Glorious Quran:

    The overwhelming Scientific Miracles of the Glorious Quran do certainly serve as further proofs and assurances that the Miracle of the birds sent by Allah Almighty to protect the Kaa'bah from being forever destroyed did occur.  The Glorious Quran is the only Book on the face of this earth today that is:

    1-  100% Preserved.

    2-  100% in perfect harmony and agreement with modern-day Science.

    3-  100% the True and Pure and Living Holy Word and Revelation of Allah Almighty.

      

      

    3-  Conclusion:

    Given the archeological discoveries above, and the Glorious Quran's STUNNING Scientific and Numerical Miracles, there is no question that the Miracle of the birds protecting Mecca is quite feasible.  Many people witnessed this Miracle happening when the Prophet was days old.  The Prophet, therefore, could not have dared to come up with some false tale to the Meccans if the story didn't indeed happen.  But because it happened, it was widely accepted by the people of Mecca.

    Indeed, all Praise and Glory are due to Allah Almighty alone for making the Noble Quran be the Perfect and Everlasting Miracle, for us humans, out of all of His Divine Miracles!  And may Allah Almighty send His Peace, Mercy and Blessings upon our Beloved and Blessed Prophet, Teacher and Role Model, Muhammad.  Ameen.

      

      

      

      

    Also Visit:

    Some very STUNNING Divine Miracles: [1]

    Here are some of my favorite Stunning Scientific Miracles in the Glorious Quran from among the tens (10s) that are listed in this section:

    1-  Here is one stunning Numerical Miracle, from the 10s below, for you:

    The Glorious Quran has 114 Chapters. The sum of those Chapters is 6555 (1+2+...+114 = 6555). There are also 6236 Noble Verses in the Glorious Quran. Now, IF YOU ADD EACH CHAPTER # with the number of its Verses, then you get a list of numbers. So 1 (first Chapter) + 7 (# of its Verses) = 8. Do this for all Chapters.

    1-  The sum of the odd numbers from the list = 6555.
    2-  The sum of the even numbers from the list = 6236.

    See the XLS file for 100% confirmation.
      

    2-  The Great Miracle.  Allah Almighty in the Holy Quran called the Number 19 Miracle "One of the Mighty Ones (Miracles)" (74:30-37) [1] [2].  See the 100s of Noble Verses that clearly testify to this Great Miracle.  Also, did you know that Allah Almighty Said in Surat Nuh (that's Noble Chapter Nuh (Noah)) that Prophet Noah lived for 950 years among his people. 

    Yet, all Praise and Glory are due to Allah Almighty Alone, the entire Noble Surah is exactly written in 950 Letters [1] [2]!  You can thoroughly see this in the scanned images that thoroughly verify every single Noble Letter, in the links.  Click on the links to see the many other Numerical Miracles in the Holy Quran.  Also, see the Numerical Miracles section along with all of the other great sections.

      
    3-  19 X 115 = 2185 Number 19 and BASMALA Miracle.  The total numerical value of Noble Verses 74:30-37 themselves, which are the heart of the Number 19 Miracle, has a stunning Miracle in it.  The value of these Noble Verses matches the multiplication of the BASMALA's number of letters (19 Letters) and their total numerical values (115): 19 X 115 = 2185.  The Basmala, which full text in Arabic means "In the Name of Allah The Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful" is the Key to the Glorious Quran.  It is recited first before reading the Holy Quran, and it is also obligatory upon every Muslim to start with the Basmala before starting any task.

      
    4-  Please also checkout the many hundreds (100s) of Great Numerical Miracles, and the many tens (10s) of other Great Scientific Miracles that deal with:

         1-  Embryology.
         2-  Biology.
         3-  Astronomy.
         4-  Geology.
         5-  Mathematics
         6-  Archeology.
         7-  Prophecies [1].

    For example:

    1-  The explosion of the Universe, Galaxies and Stars bring about Smoke.
      
    "When the sky disintegrates, and turns rose colored like paint (
    وردة كالدهان)." (The Noble Quran, 55:37) [2] [3]
      

      
      

    Also, the Glorious Quran [1] declares that the earth is:

    1- Spherical.
    2- Suspended in Space.
    3- Rotating around itself.
    4- Is traveling in Space.

    This is also all demonstrated in good details in the following video file:

    www.answering-christianity.com/egg-shaped_earth.htm   

      

    The Scientific Miracles in the Noble Quran.

    Ask me any question section.

    Allah Almighty said that the earth is "egg-shaped".

    If the Noble Quran says the earth is "egg-shaped" through a Notion, then why couldn't Prophet Muhammad just say it clear in plain Arabic? (Detailed proofs demonstrating the miracle of the Word/Notion "dahaha").

    End of Times Volcanoes will be caused by the stretching of the earth's crust - Mentioned in the Glorious Quran and confirmed by Science!

    1. Earthquakes occur before volcanoes, and the rising of earth's core's heavy metals during earthquakes, mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by science!

    Several EARLY imams said the earth is spherical through Noble Verse 79:30.  Medieval Imams agreed that the earth is round using the Noble Quran.

    The Earth is like a Rocking Cradle - Mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by Science!

    The Moon is moving towards the Sun, and the Earth is moving away from the Sun, and the earth's direction of rotation is changing - Mentioned in the Noble Quran and Confirmed by Science.

    The expansion of the earth - mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by Science.

    The Earth "Sutihat" (pressed and expanded), and the Bulging Miracle - Mentioned in the Glorious Quran and confirmed by Science.

    The bringing forth of the earth's waters (oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, etc...) after the expansion of the planet earth.  A new scientific video, from a Western scientist, confirms the stunning Scientific Miracle in Noble Verses 79:30-32 regarding Allah Almighty bringing forth the waters (oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, etc...) after He expanded the earth.  Scientists have proven that our planet earth, indeed, was at one point all covered with land with shallow and limited bodies of water.  The vast bodies of water that we have today, where water today covers more than 70% of the entire globe, happened after the expansion of the earth -- precisely as Allah Almighty mentioned in the Noble Quran.  Scientists have only recently confirmed it!

    Comets of Ice mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by Science.

  • The Pressed/squeezed Clouds (المعصرات) Miracle in the Glorious Quran.

  • pulsar.gif (2171 bytes) The Miracle of the Rain, Thunder and Electrical "fertilization" caused by winds in the Noble Quran!

    Water Cycle, and Rain from the Fertilizing winds (AUDIO).

    Clouds are kept in the air by the winds, mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by Science!

    The Ozone layer is a protective ceiling to earth, PRECISELY mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by Science!

  • Our protective sky will eventually "release" its gases into space.
      
  • The Ozone layer is able to heal itself from damage - mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by science!
     
  • The Ozone layer is raised to balance air pressure and temperature - mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by science!

  • The Geological Miracle in Noble Verses 30:2-5 (the place where the Romans were defeated).

  • Rebuttal to Shamoun's and Katz' "Sinking to Dead Sea Levels" article.
  • The location of the lowest land on earth (AUDIO).
     
  • The lost civilization of the people of Ad and Thamud was discovered.

    The Motion of Earth in the Noble Quran.

    The Noble Quran confirms that the earth is rotating around its axle.

    The reduction of earth's size in both the Noble Quran and Science!

    Water on earth shall vanish - mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by Science!

    The constant reduction of earth's size:  The earth used to be 200 times bigger!

    The Earth is round according to Islam.

    Faults on earth in the Noble Quran and Science!

    pulsar.gif (2171 bytes) Lack of Oxygen and painful low pressure in space.  Science confirmed the Noble Quran's Divine Claim.

    The breathing cycle during the day on planet earth by the plants, humans and animals - mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by Science!

    The Black Sea and Dark Waters in the Noble Quran!

  • Did the Noble Quran really say that the sun sets and rises on the earth?
  • The sun's rising and setting POINTS on earth, mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by science.
  • Does the Hadith really contain scientific errors regarding the sun's rising and setting?
  • An article by brother Kasem Suleiman.  An Arabic article in PDF format.
  • Regarding the iron Miracle, please visit:

  • Iron was sent down from space.

  •   
    1. Audio file.
    2. Video file 1.
    3. Video file 2.
        
  • Iron's atomic number is perfectly mentioned in the Holy Quran.
      
  • The iron core makes much of the earth's gravity, by the Discovery Channel:

  • The amazing creation of earth and iron in the Noble Quran.   Iron came from space, and the Noble Quran mentioned it.

    Iron was sent down to earth from space (AUDIO).

    The origins of the Universe, Big Bang theory, Cosmic Crunch, and the creation of the SECOND EARTH after the second Big Bang in the Noble Quran and Science.  Also, Dr. Zaghlool's scientific explanation of the earth and heaven coming to Allah Almighty "willingly or unwillingly" and how each celestial object behaves differently depending on its mass.

    The Miracle of the Space Fabric - Mentioned in the Glorious Quran and confirmed by Science.

    The 7 properties of earth in the Noble Quran and Science.  Read the first section of the article.

    Rebuttal to the "Heaven" and "Stars in the lower Heaven" in Noble Verses 37:6 and 65:12.   Read the "Rebuttals" section in the article.   This was an attempt to refute the fact that Allah Almighty Claimed that He Created 7 Ozone Layers as well as 7 different Heavens.

    The dead turning into Fossils and Iron. The Noble Quran Claimed it, and Science today Confirmed it!


    Outside Supporting articles:

    http://www.universalunity.net/iron.htm   This article shows the Mathematical Codes of Iron in the Noble Quran and Science, and shows how Science confirmed Allah Almighty's Divine Claim in Noble Verses 17:49-50 about the dead converting into rocks and iron.   In case the web site is down, you can access the article on my site.

    http://www.universalunity.net/iron2.htm   More elaborations on Noble Verses 17:49-51.  In case the web site is down, you can access the article on my site.

    Living Creatures were sent down from space. Science confirms the Noble Quran's Claim.

    The amazing creation of earth and mountains in the Noble Quran.   Science confirms that mountains prevent the earth from shaking while it is revolving around itself, and that they are like pegs rooted in it.  The Noble Quran made a similar claim.

    Mountains prevent the earth from shaking - The Noble Quran claimed it and Science confirmed it!

    Geology in the Noble Quran - See the Scientific confirmation.

    The Miracle of separating the salty seas' waters from each others (with barriers) - Mentioned in the Glorious Quran and confirmed by Science.

  • See the ample Scientific proofs that I've provided from NASA and other reputable sources that prove the Glorious Quran's Miracle.
      
  • Oceanology in the Noble Quran - See the Scientific confirmation.  The barriers between waters in both science and the Noble Quran.
      
  • The barriers between the seas' waters.
      
  • Seas don't mix, and the earth's orbit in the Noble Quran.
      
  • Seas do not mingle according to the Noble Quran.
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    The darkness of oceans and disappearance of light was mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by Science.

    Darkness in the seas and internal waves in the Noble Quran, confirmed by science.  

    Earth's gravity and the various gravities of the planets mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by science.

    The Source of Energy.

    Man spoiling the land and sea and him will suffer on earth from it are prophesied in the Glorious Quran.

  • Corruptions and Catastrophes on land and sea, done by men, is Prophesied in the Glorious Quran and confirmed by Science!

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